This study examines the relationships between group faultlines, appraisals (evaluations) of group members, emotional responses, and performance in groups. The study uses a 2 by 2 experimental design, crossing demographic alignment (alignment vs. no alignment) and appraisals (instrumental vs. intrinsic) as between-subjects variables. Data from 5 types of measurement were used to analyze the effects of member alignment and appraisals.
Bezrukova, Katerina; Roseman, Ira; and Phebus, John, "Faultlines, faults, and feelings: the effects of subgroup formation and appraisals on emotions in groups" (2005). Psychology. 3.