Values and display rules for specific emotions
Based on the CAD Triad Hypothesis (Rozin, Lowery, Imada, & Haidt, 1999), the authors hypothesized relationships between specific values and display rules for specific emotions. In particular, the authors proposed that Conservation and Self-Enhancement would be related to the display rule to express contempt, Conservation would be related to the display rule to express disgust, and Openness to Change and Self-Transcendence would be related to the display rules to express anger and sadness. To test this framework and its cross-cultural applicability, the present study examines values and emotional display rules among 106 U.S. Americans and 77 Germans. As predicted, Americans valued Conservation and Self-Enhancement more than did Germans, who valued Openness to Change and Self-Transcendence more than did Americans. These value differences were associated with differences in display rules; Americans endorsed contempt and disgust expressions more than did Germans, who endorsed anger and sadness expressions more than did Americans. Values mediated (“unpackaged”) many of these country differences in display rules. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Koopmann-Holm, B. & Matsumoto, D. (2011). Values and display rules for specific emotions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 355-371.