A Unified RLC Model for High-Speed On- Chip Interconnects

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In this paper, we propose a compact on-chip interconnect model for full-chip simulation. The model consists of two components, a quasi-three-dimensional (3-D) capacitance model and an effective loop inductance model. In the capacitance model, we propose a novel concept of effective width (W/sub eff/) for a 3-D wire, which is derived from an analytical two-dimensional (2-D) model combined with a new analytical "wall-to-wall" model. The effective width provides a physics-based approach to decompose any 3-D structure into a series of 2-D segments, resulting in an efficient and accurate capacitance extraction. In the inductance model, we use an effective loop inductance approach for an analytic and hierarchical model construction. In particular, we show empirically that high-frequency signals (above multi-GHz) propagating through random signal lines can be approximated by a quasi-TEM mode relationship, leading to a simple way to extract the high-frequency inductance from the capacitance of the wire. Finally, the capacitance and inductance models are combined into a unified frequency-dependent RLC model, describing successfully the wide-band characteristics of on-chip interconnects up to 100 GHz. Non-orthogonal wire architecture is also investigated and included in the proposed model.