Society for Applied Sociology
Human service agencies have traditionally provided services to a population considered "in need" of those services. Program participants are often seen solely as passive recipients of food, housing, health care, case management, etc. However, community developers, program evaluators, human service/development staff and administrators, as well as researchers are finding that involving program participants in the planning and administration of programs and research results in better programs, program utilization, and empowerment of program participants (Nichols 2002; Papineau and Kiely 1996).
Nichols, Laura, Shannon Gleeson, and Sandra Figueroa. 2004. Moving Beyond the Client Role: Helping Human Service Organizations Identify Program Participant’s Assets. Social Insight 8: 34-36.