The Media and Intra-Elite Communication in Poland: Organization and Control of the Media

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The Rand Corporation


A review of the controls over and the internal organization and process of Polish media. The changing position of the media in the Polish Communist system during the Stalinist, 1956, Gomulka, and Gierek periods are described, along with related changes in the instruments of Party control. The instruments by which the Party exercises direct and indirect supervision over the media are examined, with the exception of formal censorship, which is discussed in detail in companion Note N-1514/2. Finally, the Note describes key elements of the internal organization and editorial process that affect the output of Polish media. It is shown that editorial details, e.g., publication deadlines and the system of remuneration, can affect media output as much as Central Committee directives or censorship. The Note draws extensively on field research in Poland, including a survey of 174 working journalists. This study is a portion of a broad study of Polish media, summarized in R-2627.