Hydrothermal scheduling by augmented Lagrangian: consideration of transmission constraints and pumped-storage units

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This paper presents an augmented Lagrangian (AL) approach to scheduling a generation mix of thermal and hydro resources. AL presents a remedy to duality gap encountered with the ordinary Lagrangian for nonconvex problems. It shapes the Lagrangian function as a hyperparaboloid associating penalty in the direction of the coupling constraints. This work accounts further for the transmission constraints. We use a hydrothermal resource model with pumped-storage units. An IEEE 24-bus test system is used for AL performance illustration. Computational models are all coded in C. The results of the test case show that the AL approach can provide better scheduling results as it can detect optimal on/off schedules of units over a planning horizon at a minimal cost with no constraint violation. It requires no iteration with economic dispatch algorithms. The approach proves accurate and practical for systems with generation diversity and limited transmission capacity.