Toward an automatic seizure control system in rats through transcranial focal stimulation via tripolar concentric ring electrodes
Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of the world population. Antiepileptic drugs are ineffective in approximately 30% of patients and have side effects. We are developing a noninvasive, or minimally invasive, transcranial focal electrical stimulation system through our novel tripolar concentric ring electrodes to control seizures. In this study, we demonstrate feasibility of an automatic seizure control system in rats with pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures through single and multiple stimulations. These stimulations are automatically triggered by a real-time electrographic seizure activity detector based on a disjunctive combination of detections from a cumulative sum algorithm and a generalized likelihood ratio test. An average seizure onset detection accuracy of 76.14% was obtained for the test set (n = 13). Detection of electrographic seizure activity was accomplished in advance of the early behavioral seizure activity in 76.92% of the cases. Automatically triggered stimulation significantly (p = 0.001) reduced the electrographic seizure activity power in the once stimulated group compared to controls in 70% of the cases. To the best of our knowledge this is the first closed-loop automatic seizure control system based on noninvasive electrical brain stimulation using tripolar concentric ring electrode electrographic seizure activity as feedback.
Makeyev, O., Liu, X., Luna-Munguia, H., Rogel-Salazar, G., Mucio-Ramirez, S., Liu, Y., Sun, Y. L., Kay, S. M., & Besio, W. G. (2012). Toward a Noninvasive Automatic Seizure Control System in Rats With Transcranial Focal Stimulations via Tripolar Concentric Ring Electrodes. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 20(4), 422–431. https://doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2012.2197865