An Extension of the Leadership Practices Inventory to Individual Contributors
The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), which had been developed for use with managerial populations, was modified for use with nonmanagers and individual contributors. Subjects were 1,651 individual contributors and 7,073 of their colleagues. Satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates were found. Differences between self and observer scores and between male and female respondents were minimal and consistent with those reported for the LPI. Comparisons between the leadership practices of managers and nonmanagers within the same organization were relatively similar, although some significant differences were observed.
Posner, B. Z., & Kouzes, J. M. (1994). An Extension of the Leadership Practices Inventory to Individual Contributors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54(4), 959–966. http://doi.org/10.1177/0013164494054004012