Economic Systems in Africa Prepared for New Encyclopedia of Africa, 2nd edition
Many African economies saw declines in many measures standards of living or well-being over the quarter decade 1980-2004. Gross National Income Product (GNI), the value of goods and services produced by nationals of a country in a year, declined for almost half of African countries, when measured in inflation adjusted dollars and on a per person basis. Life expectancy at birth remained below 50 years, and declined in many countries due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic (which may have been preventable through effective public action) and little progress in reducing deaths attributable to diarrhea, malaria, and tuberculosis. By 2004, only 42% of births were attended by skilled health personnel, and consequently infant and maternal mortality were the highest in the world. Academic paper: Economic Systems in Africa Prepared for New Encyclopedia of Africa, 2nd edition.
Kevane, M. (2006). Economic Systems in Africa. New Encyclopedia of Africa, 2nd Edition.
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