Oxford University Press
The use of alcohol for social and ceremonial occasions was recorded in Chinese history as early as 1760 B.C. during the Yin Dynasty (Ci-Hai Encyclopedia, 1979:936). The cultural tradition of ancient China placed alcoholic beverages at the center of social occasions, which presumably was the origin of the adage: "Without wine, there is no li (or etiquette)." Thus, the use of alcoholic beverages has always been accompanied by the concept of propriety and the discharging of one's role obligations m social functions, rather than that of personal indulgence.
Alcoholism in North America, Europe, and Asia
John E. Helzer
Glorisa J. Canino
Wang, Chang-Hua, William T. Liu, Ming-Yuan Zhang, Elena S.H. Yu, Zheng-Yi Xia, Marilyn Fernandez, Ching-Tung Lung, Chang-Lin Xu, and Guang-Ya Qu (1992), "Alcohol Use, Abuse, and Dependency in Shanghai." Pp. 264-286 in Alcoholism in North America, Europe, and Asia, edited by John E. Helzer and Glorisa J. Canino. New York: Oxford University Press.