Spiritual modeling self-efficacy
American Psychology Association
We report psychometric properties, correlates, and underlying theory of the Spiritual Modeling Self-Efficacy (SMSE) scale. The SMSE, the first spiritually oriented self-efficacy measure, is a 10-item self-report assessment of perceived efficacy for learning from spiritual models. Spiritual models are defined as community-based or prominent people who function for respondents as exemplars of spiritual qualities, such as compassion, self-control, or faith. Demographic, spiritual, and personality correlates were examined in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of college students from California, Connecticut, and Tennessee (N = 1,012). SMSE total scores demonstrated good 7-week test–retest reliability (r = .77), patterns of correlation supporting convergent, divergent, and criterion-related validity, demographic differences in expected directions, and substantial individual heterogeneity. Factor analyses revealed two correlated subscales corresponding to community-based and prominent models (internal reliabilities α > .85). Previous randomized studies of college students have demonstrated that psychosocial interventions can enhance SMSE scores. Implications are discussed for research and for pastoral, educational, and health applications.
Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., Park, C. L., Shaver, P. R., Hood, R., & Plante, T. G. (2012). Spiritual modeling self-efficacy. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4, 278-297.