Development and Validation of the Leadership Practices Inventory
An instrument to measure the behaviors of leaders was developed using a variety of samples of managers and their subordinates employed in both public and private sector organizations. Factor analyses supported the underlying conceptual framework and investigations of differences by public and private sector organizational affiliation, American and international origins, and gender revealed few significant differences. Discriminant analysis results suggested good predictive validity in terms of leaders' effectiveness and behavior.
Posner, B. Z., & Kouzes, J. M. (1988). Development and Validation of the Leadership Practices Inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48(2), 483–496. http://doi.org/10.1177/0013164488482024