Psychometric Properties of the Leadership Practices Inventory--Updated

Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 1993


Sage Publications


Accurately assessing leadership behavior continues to be important to both researchers and management development practitioners. In a series of follow-up studies employing the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI), data from over 36,000 respondents were used to reexamine the psychometric properties of the instrument and to explore possible gender, functional field, ethnic and/or cross-cultural background differences. Factor analytic results sup- ported a 5-factor scale that was consistent with the five hypothesized dimensions of the LPI (Challenging, Inspiring, Enabling, Modeling, and Encouraging). Gender differences were observed for performance on the Modeling and Encouraging subscales with females reportedly engaging in these activities more frequently than do males. Additional findings are discussed.