Johns Hopkins University Press
This study investigated the impact of a leadership development program in students' first year with the subsequent leadership behaviors of those students in their senior year. Significant changes were reported in the frequency of engaging in leadership behaviors from freshman to senior years. No differences were found on the basis of gender. In addition, significant differences in leadership behaviors were found between seniors who had participated in the leadership development program with a control group of seniors who had not participated. Results supported the impact of a formal leadership program upon students' leadership development.
Posner, Barry Z. "A Longitudinal Study Examining Changes in Students' Leadership Behavior." Journal of College Student Development 50.5 (2009): 551-63.