Date of Award

Spring 2023

Document Type



Santa Clara : Santa Clara University, 2023.


Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

Jun Wang


Lattice structures usage for attenuation is growing in popularity as 3D printing methods allow for the easier production of complex structures. The application of these impact attenuators allows for wider applications that can lead to better products in sports such as football to prevent head trauma. In this paper, we aim to design and test lattice structures to determine a lattice model that best prevents impacts through drop and compression testing to provide an outer layer of protection for football players. Initial validity through finite element analysis provided four potential lattice structures with a single parameter. Physical testing determined the second lattice (Lattice 2) with the most significant compression displacement of 14.42 mm and a reduction of peak acceleration by 96 Gs. As a comparison, a current market product was identified to have only been effective to cut about 10 Gs. Material processing also played a role in attenuation as the curing of the material led to different material properties. We identified the importance of increasing displacement and pulse time in attenuation and the varying effects of the four different lattice designs that led to better performance. We also recognized the need to optimize cure time to better achieve the best material properties that exhibit negative stiffness properties and increase pulse time.