Date of Award


Document Type



Santa Clara : Santa Clara University, 2015.

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Electrical Engineering

First Advisor

Tokunbo Ogunfunmi


The emergence of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) has posed new challenges to the development of speech codecs. The key issue of transporting real-time voice packet over IP networks is the lack of guarantee for reasonable speech quality due to packet delay or loss.

Most of the widely used narrowband codecs depend on the Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) coding technique. The CELP technique utilizes the long-term prediction across the frame boundaries and therefore causes error propagation in the case of packet loss and need to transmit redundant information in order to mitigate the problem. The internet Low Bit-rate Codec (iLBC) employs the frame-independent coding and therefore inherently possesses high robustness to packet loss. However, the original iLBC lacks in some of the key features of speech codecs for IP networks: Rate flexibility, Scalability, and Wideband support.

This dissertation presents novel scalable narrowband and wideband speech codecs for IP networks using the frame independent coding scheme based on the iLBC. The rate flexibility is added to the iLBC by employing the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and iii the scalable algebraic vector quantization (AVQ) and by allocating different number of bits to the AVQ. The bit-rate scalability is obtained by adding the enhancement layer to the core layer of the multi-rate iLBC. The enhancement layer encodes the weighted iLBC coding error in the modified DCT (MDCT) domain. The proposed wideband codec employs the bandwidth extension technique to extend the capabilities of existing narrowband codecs to provide wideband coding functionality. The wavelet transform is also used to further enhance the performance of the proposed codec.

The performance evaluation results show that the proposed codec provides high robustness to packet loss and achieves equivalent or higher speech quality than state-of-the-art codecs under the clean channel condition.


Copyright © 2015 by Koji Seto.