Structural and Electrical Characterization of Carbon Nanofibers for Interconnect Via Applications
We present temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (CNF) arrays for on-chip interconnect applications. The study consists of three parts. First, the electron transport mechanisms in these structures are investigated using I-V measurements over a broad temperature range (4.4 K to 350 K). The measured resistivity in CNF arrays is modeled based on known graphite two-dimensional hopping electron conduction mechanism. The model is used because of the disordered graphite structure observed during high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of the CNF and CNF-metal interface. Second, electrical reliability measurements are performed at different temperatures to demonstrate the robust nature of CNFs for interconnect applications. Finally, some guidance in catalyst material selection is presented to improve the nanostructure of CNFs, making the morphology similar to multiwall nanotubes.
Q. Ngo, T. Yamada, M. Suzuki, Y. Ominami, A. M. Cassell, J. Li, M. Meyyappan, and C.Y. Yang, "Structural and Electrical Characterization of Carbon Nanofibers for Interconnect Via Applications," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 6, 688-695 (2007).