Electron-beam and ion-beam-induced deposited tungsten contacts for carbon nanofiber interconnects
Ion-beam-induced deposition (IBID) and electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) with tungsten (W) are evaluated for engineering electrical contacts with carbon nanofibers (CNFs). While a different tungsten-containing precursor gas is utilized for each technique, the resulting tungsten deposits result in significant contact resistance reduction. The performance of CNF devices with W contacts is examined and conduction across these contacts is analyzed. IBID-W, while yielding lower contact resistance than EBID-W, can be problematic in the presence of on-chip semiconducting devices, whereas EBID-W provides substantial contact resistance reduction that can be further improved by current stressing. Significant differences between IBID-W and EBID-W are observed at the electrode contact interfaces using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. These differences are consistent with the observed electrical behaviors of their respective test devices.
P. Wilhite, H.S. Uh, N. Kanzaki, P. Wang, A. Vyas, S. Maeda, T. Yamada, and C.Y. Yang, “Electron-beam and ion-beam-induced deposited tungsten contacts for carbon nanofiber interconnects,” Nanotechnology 25, 375702 (8 pp) (2014).