This discussion piece addresses two recent debates: entitlement theory and the resilience of rural systems. The authors find that in western Sudan entitlement theory provides a specific and useful framework for understanding the nature of the crisis confronting the society. Arguments about the resilience of rural systems, however, need to be more closely examined and will depend on site-specific factors. The rural economy and society of western Sudan were not found to be resilient.
Gray, L., & Kevane, M. (1993). For Whom is the Rural Economy Resilient? Initial Effects of Drought in Western Sudan. Development and Change, 24(1), 159–176.