National Evaluation of the Violent Offender Incarceration / Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive Grant Program
The law provided for Federal incentive grants to States for violent offender incarceration and truth-in-sentencing (TIS) to increase the capacity of State correctional systems to confine serious and violent offenders. The research examined legislative actions, sentencing patterns, correctional populations, criminal justice system costs, crime rates, and the perceptions of criminal justice system personnel. Results revealed that grant awards for fiscal years 1996-99 totaled over $1.8 billion of the $10 billion authorized through fiscal year 2000. The program did appear to have motivated some States to pass TIS laws, but most of these States would probably have passed such legislation anyway. States used the funds to build prison beds, but the increase in beds was small. It was too early to determine the extent to which offenders sentenced under the TIS laws were serving longer terms. Judges and prosecutors agreed that get-tough legislation had affected their work in terms of caseloads, processing time, plea bargains, and waivers to adult court. They agreed that the laws produced longer sentences and time served and benefited victims. However, judges felt that the legislation had reduced their discretion in sentencing, whereas prosecutors felt that it had enhanced their discretion. Correctional administrators noted increases in both positive prison programs and in negative behaviors, as well as crowding. The analysis concluded that the overall trends suggested some promising patterns, but more definitive results would require research several years from now. Finally, the legislation represented a single approach to the complicated issue of sentencing and had not been tested in a time of a slowing economy and rising crime rates.
Turner, Susan, Terry Fain, Peter W. Greenwood, Elsa Y. Chen, and James Chiesa. National Evaluation of the Violent Offender Incarceration / Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive Grant Program, September 2001. RAND Report # DRU-2634-NIJ. Prepared for the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.